The Book of Healing is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abu Ali ibn Sīna (Avicenna) from medieval Persia, near Bukhara in Maverounnahr. The Metaphysics of the Healing (Islamic Translation Series) Hardcover – 9 Sep Avicenna, the most influential of Islamic philosophers, produced The Healing as his magnum opus on his religious and political philosophy. Through Marmura’s skill as a translator and his extensive. Start by marking “The Metaphysics of The Healing” as Want to Read: Avicenna, the most influential of Islamic philosophers, produced The Healing as his magnum opus on his religious and political philosophy. Now translated by Michael Marmura, The Metaphysics is the climactic.
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Kitāb al-shifāʾ, (Arabic: “The Book of Healing”)Latin title Sufficientiae, a voluminous philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia by the Muslim philosopher and. Books By Avicenna The Metaphysics of The Healing (Brigham Young University - Islamic Translation Series) by Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina, Laleh Bakhtiar. Avicenna, the most influential of Islamic philosophers, produced The Healing as his The top history books of last year picked by site Book Review Editor.
In the fourteenth century, the logician and natural philosopher, Jean Buridan, rector of Paris University , subscribed to the Avicennan variant of impetus dynamics according to which impetus is conserved forever in the absence of any resistance to motion, rather than being evanescent and self-decaying as in the Hipparchan variant.
In order to dispense with the need for positing continually moving intelligences or souls in the celestial spheres, which he pointed out are not posited by the Bible, Buridan applied the Avicennan self-conserving impetus theory to their endless rotation by extension of a terrestrial example of its application to rotary motion in the form of a rotating millwheel that continues rotating for a long time after the originally propelling hand is withdrawn, driven by the impetus applied to it.
He created a synthesis of ideas concerning the nature of the mineral and metallic states. Ibn Sina made significant contributions to natural sciences which he called Attabieyat , particularly in Earth sciences such as Islamic geography and geology. Part 2, Section 5, of The Book of Healing , contains his essay on mineralogy and meteorology , in six chapters: These principles were later known in the Renaissance of Europe as the law of superposition of strata, the concept of catastrophism , and the doctrine of uniformitarianism.
Academics such as Toulmin and Goodfield , commented on Avicenna's contribution: In natural history , The Book of Healing was the first book to treat the three kingdoms the mineral , vegetable and animal kingdoms together systematically, and it contains the most extensive medieval discussion on geology and the mineral kingdom.
It describes the structure of a meteor , dealt with the formation of sedimentary rocks , and the role of earthquakes in mountain formation. Ibn Sina also displays a clear awareness of the possibility of seas turning into dry land and vice-versa, and therefore provides a correct explanation for the discovery of fossils on mountain tops. In contrast to ancient writers such as Pythagoras , Ovid and Seneca the Younger who asserted that mountains were caused due to reasons such as subterranean winds and volcanic eruptions , Ibn Sina was the first to emphasize the role of sedimentary and erosive phenomena in the formation of mountains.
Ibn Sina further elaborated on the causes of mountains. He was aware of the ability of certain springs to petrify objects and thus envisaged the concept of a 'mineralizing and petrifying virtue' in the Earth. He wrote that valleys had been excavated by the action of currents of water, and that mountains themselves were formed by petrification of 'agglutinative clay' after land was exposed by the retreat of the sea, citing fossil shells found inland as evidence.
He wrote that currently mountains are chiefly decaying and disintegrating but that their layered appearance indicates that they were formerly produced by a sedimentary process, implying a cycle in the formation and decomposition of mountains.
The concept of uniformitarianism in geological processes can be traced back to Ibn Sina's The Book of Healing. He recognized that mountains were formed after a long sequence of events that predate human existence.
While discussing the origins of mountains in The Book of Healing , Ibn Sina was also the first to outline one of the principles underlying geologic time scales , the law of superposition of strata: Avicenna's theories on the formation of stones also added considerably to ideas about the Earth from a ' proto-chemical ' point of view. For example, his classification of minerals into salts, sulphurs, metals and stones remained in use until the end of the 18th century.
He classified minerals as follows: Due to his fundamental contributions to the development of geology , partciularly regarding the origins of mountains, Avicenna is considered fully entitled to be called the 'Father of Geology'. Ibn Sina also contributed to paleontology with his explanation of how the stoniness of fossils was caused.
Aristotle previously explained it in terms of vaporous exhalations, which Ibn Sina modified into the theory of petrifying fluids succus lapidificatus , which was elaborated on by Albert of Saxony in the 14th century and accepted in some form by most naturalists by the 16th century. In optics , Ibn Sina discovered that the speed of light is finite, as he "observed that if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite.
In The Book of Healing , Avicenna discussed the mind , its existence , the mind and body relationship, sensation , perception , etc. He wrote that at the most common level, the influence of the mind on the body can be seen in voluntary movements, in that the body obeys whenever the mind wishes to move the body.
He further writes that the second level of influence of the mind on the body is from emotions and the will. Avicenna was also the first to divide human perception into the five external senses the classical senses of hearing , sight , smell , taste and touch known since antiquity and the five internal senses which he discovered himself.
The five internal senses he discovered were: Avicenna also gave psychological explanations for certain somatic illnesses , and he always linked the physical and psychological illnesses together. He described melancholia depression as a type of mood disorder in which the person may become suspicious and develop certain types of phobias.
He stated that anger heralded the transition of melancholia to mania , and explained that humidity inside the head can contribute to mood disorders. He recognized that this occurs when the amount of breath changes: He also wrote about symptoms and treatments for nightmare , epilepsy , and weak memory.
Avicenna often used psychological methods to treat his patients. Avicenna was persuaded to the case and sent a message to the patient, asking him to be happy as the butcher was coming to slaughter him, and the sick man rejoiced. When Avicenna approached the prince with a knife in his hand, he asked "where is the cow so I may kill it.
He must be fed properly and I will kill it when it becomes healthy and fat. In the medieval Islamic world , due to Avicenna's successful reconciliation of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism along with Kalam , Avicennism eventually became the leading school of early Islamic philosophy by the 12th century, with Avicenna becoming a central authority on philosophy. Avicennism was also influential in medieval Europe , particular his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his existence - essence distinction, along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe.
The Metaphysics of The Healing
This was particularly the case in Paris , where Avicennism was later proscribed in Nevertheless, his Muslim psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus , while his metaphysics had an impact on the thought of Thomas Aquinas.
Avicenna discussed the topic of logic in Islamic philosophy extensively in his works, and developed his own system of logic known as "Avicennian logic" as an alternative to Aristotelian logic.
By the 12th century, Avicennian logic had replaced Aristotelian logic as the dominant system of logic in the Islamic world.
He wrote on the hypothetical syllogism  and on the propositional calculus , which were both part of the Stoic logical tradition. Early Islamic metaphysics , imbued as it is with Islamic theology , distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism the difference between essence and existence.
Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The search for a truly definitive Islamic philosophy can be seen in what is left to us of his work.
Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being , in which he distinguished between essence Mahiat and existence Wujud. He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things.
In addition to the Latin language, all or parts of Canon has been translated and published in the European languages such as Russian 11 , 4 , Polish 27 , German 1 and English 8.
The Hebrew translation of Canon was published in Napoli in 3. In addition to Canon, other medical works of Avicenna has been received by the translators and physicians of the west. The first print of this translation along with the annotations by Ibn Rushd was published in Venice in 3. The French translation of the mentioned work also along with Arabic text and Latin translation were printed and published in 3.
One of the important works of Avicenna is a book about the treatment of kidney diseases which was translated by Andrea Alpago into Latin and published in Venice in 3.
Also, the Latin translation of heart medicines under the title Medicamenta Cordialis was translated by Arnold of Villanova and published in 3, See also: 8. Results Reviewing all the past discussions, it can be concluded that medicine in the 11th to 17th centuries both in the Islamic world and the Europe was greatly under the influence of Avicenna medicine with the focus on his great book of Canon.
The impact of the Avicenna medicine in the history of medicine has emerged in different dimensions: Treatment, publications and education.
In the present article, the impact of Avicenna in the treatment dimension has not been tackled-with the exception of a short reference-and this issue is in need of an independent research. But in the two other dimensions, it was clearly observed that to a great extent, the medical works of Avicenna were received by the author physicians and medical educational centers.
Of course, the two educational and publishing dimensions of Avicenna medicine were interacting with each other. That is to say that teaching the book of Canon as an example gave rise to the emergence of various and different publications including annotations, summaries and translations about Canon. These various publications in turn, made the thriving state of teaching Canon in the medical centers and among the instructors of medicine. Based on this, the works which had appeared in the world of Islam with the exception of Andalusia relying on the works by Avicenna are innumerable, and the superior position of Canon among the reference medical book in the formal and informal institutions of medical education in India, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Sham, Rum the Minor Asia and the Europe is unique as compared with the works of other Muslim and non-muslim physicians.
Finally, it can be claimed that the medical school of Avicenna is the base and mother of the new medicine, as his Canon was the complete set of the medical views before him and the infrastructure of the medical works after him. Of course, as in the past century, some of the researchers of medicine in different countries casted doubt on some of the modern medicine in some cases or reconsidered them based on the diagnosis and prescriptions of Avicenna, it will be appropriate that this view to be followed by the researchers of medicine.
Acknowledgement I feel bound to express my sincere thanks to the following scholars who helped me develop this article in one way or another: Prof. Hadi Alem Zadeh, Dr. Abdolmajid Eskandari. References 1. Nafisi S. Avicenna in Europe. In: Jashn Nameh Ibn Sina. Al-Baba M Z. Najmabadi M. Section 5. Tehran: University of Tehran Press; A. History of medicine in Iran; pp. Azimjan A.
The Place of Avicenna in the History of Medicine
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Published September 1st by Brigham Young University first published Al-Baba MZ. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect.